Come! Ms. Dunlap will give two talks at the CNPS Conservation Conference Feb. 1-3 in LA!

One regarding a database of 3,700 nectar plants (& how to collect images to benefit pollinators), and the other regarding
a prototypical key incorporating a novel plant identification system that produced an order of magnitude improvement.

conference.cnps.org

Papilio zelicaon

Common name: Anise Swallowtail

Feeds on these plants:

Aesculus californica

Asclepias asperula

Asclepias curassavica
(sold as Silky Deep Red)

Asclepias curassavica
(sold as Silky Gold)

Asclepias fascicularis

Asclepias hallii

Asclepias incarnata

Asclepias perennis

Asclepias purpurascens

Asclepias quadrifolia

Asclepias speciosa

Asclepias subulata

Asclepias syriaca

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclepias viridiflora

Azalea species

Bougainvilla species

Buddleja alternifolia

Buddleja colvilei

Buddleja crispa

Buddleja davidii

Buddleja davidii ‘Harlequin’

Buddleja davidii ‘Pink Delight’

Buddleja davidii
(sold as dwarf)

Buddleja lindleyana

Buddleja marrubifolia

Buddleja saligna

Buddleja salviifolia

Buddleja weyeriana 'honeycomb'

Buddleja x pikei

Buddleja x weyeriana

Carduus acanthoides

Carduus nutans

Carduus pycnocephalus

Centranthus ruber

Cirsium altissimum

Cirsium arvense

Cirsium hilli

Cirsium muticum

Cirsium nuttalii

Cirsium occidentale

Cirsium species

Cirsium vulgare

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Amsterdam Maxi)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Amsterdam Forcing)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Autumn King)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Avenger)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Baby Spike)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Bolero)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Chantenay Red Cored)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Chantenay Royal)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Danvers 126)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Danvers Half-Long)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Deep Purple Carrot)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Early Nantes)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Flyaway)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Gold Pak)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Imperator 58)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Ingot)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Legend)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Little Finger)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Long Imperator)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Maestro)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Minicor)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Nantes Coreless)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Nantes Fancy)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Nantes Scarlet)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Nantes)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Orlando Gold)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Parmex)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Purple Dragon)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Purple Haze)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Short 'n Sweet)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as St Valery)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Sweetness)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Tendersweet)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Thumbelina)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as Touchon)

Daucus carota ssp. sativus
(sold as orbit)

Daucus carota

Dianthus barbatus

Dichelostemma congestum

Duranta erecta ‘Sapphire’

Duranta erecta
(sold as Variegata)

Duranta stenostachya

Echinacea angustifolia

Echinacea paradoxa

Echinacea purpurea

Echinacea sanguinea

Echinacea tennesseensis

Echinacea
(sold as Big Sky Harvest Moon)

Echinacea
(sold as Big Sky Yellow)

Echium candicans

Echium hybrid
(sold as Mr Happy)

Echium maculatum

Echium pininana

Echium plantagineum

Echium vulgare

Echium wildpretii

Foeniculum vulgare

Helianthus angustifolius

Helianthus annuus
(sold as Junior Yellow)

Helianthus annuus
(sold as Paquito Mix)

Helianthus laevigatus

Helianthus maximiliani

Helianthus mollis

Helianthus occidentalis

Helianthus petiolaris

Helianthus salicifolius

Iris afghanica

Iris bracteata

Iris chrysographes

Iris confusa

Iris domestica

Iris douglasiana

Iris douglasiana ‘Californian Hybrids’

Iris ensata ‘Variegata’

Iris foetidissima

Iris graminea

Iris innominata

Iris japonica ‘Variegata’

Iris laevigata

Iris longipetala

Iris pallida

Iris pallida ‘Aureo Variegata’

Iris pumila

Iris purdyi

Iris sibirica

Iris tenax

Iris versicolor

Iris x germanica

Lantana camara
(sold as Carlos)

Lantana camara
(sold as Landmark Peach Sunrise)

Lantana camara
(sold as Landmark Pink Dawn)

Lantana hirta

Lantana hybrid
(sold as New Gold)

Lantana involucrata

Lantana montevidensis

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as Confetti)

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as Lavender Trailing)

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as New Gold)

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as orange)

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as white)

Lantana montevidensis
(sold as yellow)

Lantana ‘Silver Mound’

Limonium sinuatum

Penstemon pseudospectablis

Pentas species

Raphanus raphanistrum

Raphanus sativus
(sold as April Cross)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Cabernet)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Cherry Belle)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as China Rose)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Chinese White)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Comet)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Crunchy Royale)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Early Scarlet Globe)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as French Breakfast)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Icicle)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Long White Icicle)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Masato Green)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Masato Red)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Minowase Early daikon)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Ping Pong)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Pink Beauty)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Red Boy)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Red Meat)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Round Black Spanish)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Sakurajima Mammoth)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Scarlet Globe)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Snow Belle)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Sparkler)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Szechuan Red)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as Tama)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as burpee white)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as champion)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as cherriette)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as lady slipper)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as plum purple)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as scarlet knight)

Raphanus sativus
(sold as summer cross)

Salvia africana-lutea

Salvia apiana

Salvia ballotiflora

Salvia blepharophylla

Salvia brandegei

Salvia buchananii

Salvia cacaliifolia

Salvia canariensis

Salvia chamaedryoides

Salvia chiapensis

Salvia cleveladii, or clevelandii

Salvia clevelandii

Salvia coahuilensis

Salvia coccinea ‘Brenthurst’

Salvia coccinea ‘Lady In Red’

Salvia coccinea
(sold as May Night)

Salvia coccinea
(sold as Rose Queen)

Salvia coccinea
(sold as Select Rose)

Salvia coerulea

Salvia confertiflora

Salvia discolor

Salvia dolomitica

Salvia elegans

Salvia elegans
(sold as Golden Delicious)

Salvia farinacea

Salvia fruticosa

Salvia fulgens

Salvia gesneriiflora

Salvia glechomifolia

Salvia greggii

Salvia greggii ‘Navajo Bright Red’

Salvia greggii ‘Navajo White’

Salvia greggii ‘Sierra San Antonio’

Salvia greggii
(sold as watermelon Autumn Sage pink)

Salvia hians

Salvia hybrid

Salvia indica

Salvia involucrata
(sold as El Cielo)

Salvia leucantha

Salvia leucantha ‘Santa Barbara’

Salvia leucophylla

Salvia longispicata

Salvia mellifera

Salvia mexicana

Salvia microphylla

Salvia microphylla ‘Hot Lips’

Salvia microphylla
(sold as Bezerkeley)

Salvia microphylla
(sold as Rosita)

Salvia microphylla
(sold as ucb pink)

Salvia munzii

Salvia nemorosa

Salvia nemorosa ‘Sensation Rose’

Salvia nemorosa
(sold as Viola Klose)

Salvia officinalis ssp. lavandulifolia

Salvia officinalis

Salvia officinalis ‘Icterina’

Salvia officinalis ‘Purpurascens’

Salvia officinalis ‘Tricolor’

Salvia pachyphylla

Salvia patens

Salvia pozo blue

Salvia pratensis

Salvia regla

Salvia roemeriana

Salvia sclerea

Salvia sinaloensis

Salvia spathacea

Salvia species

Salvia splendens

Salvia splendens ‘Salsa Purple’

Salvia uliginosa

Salvia urica

Salvia verticillata ‘Purple Rain’

Salvia viridis

Salvia wagneriana

Salvia x jamensis

Salvia x sylvestris

Salvia x sylvestris
(sold as Snowhill)

Salvia ‘Indigo Spires’

Salvia ‘Waverly’

Salvia
(sold as Blue Victory)

Salvia
(sold as Red Hot Sally)

Salvia
(sold as Salsa Purple)

Salvia
(sold as Verona)

Scabiosa caucasica

Scabiosa caucasica ‘Fama’

Scabiosa columbaria

Scabiosa ochroleuca

Scabiosa ‘Pink Mist’

Syringa pubescens ssp. microphylla

Syringa pubescens ssp. patula ‘Miss Kim’

Syringa vulgaris ‘Charles Joly’

Tithonia rotundifolia

Verbena bonariensis

Verbena hastata

Verbena hybrid
(sold as Quartz scarlet)

Verbena hybrid
(sold as Sparkler Purple & White)

Verbena hybrid
(sold as Sparkler Red & White)

Verbena hybrid
(sold as Sparkler Sky Blue & White)

Verbena hybrid
(sold as Tapien Pink)

Verbena lilacina

Verbena rigida 'polaris'

Verbena rigida polaris

Verbena rigida

Verbena stricta

Verbena ‘Homestead Purple’

Verbena
(sold as Aztec Cherry Red)

Verbena
(sold as Aztec Light Pink)

Verbena
(sold as Aztec Pearl)

Verbena
(sold as Aztec Raspberry)

Verbena
(sold as Aztec White Magic)

Verbena
(sold as Babylon Deep Pink)

Verbena
(sold as Sparkler Purple & White)

Verbena
(sold as Sparkler Sky Blue & White)

Verbena
(sold as Tukana White)

Verbena
(sold as x hybrida Taylortown Red)

Vinca major

Vinca minor
(sold as Bowles Blue)

Vinca minor
(sold as Sterling Silver)

Vinca
(sold as Burgundy Halo)

Vinca
(sold as Cooler Blush)

Vinca
(sold as Cooler Grape)

Vinca
(sold as Pacifica Deep Orchid)

Vinca
(sold as Sante Fe)

Vinca
(sold as Victory Bright Eye)

Vinca
(sold as Victory Deep Pink)

Vinca
(sold as Victory Mix)

Zinnia elegans

Zinnia elegans
(sold as Magellan Coral)

Zinnia elegans
(sold as Magellan Yellow)

Zinnia elegans
(sold as Oklahoma Scarlet)

Zinnia elegans
(sold as Sizzle Cherry & Ivory)

Zinnia haageana

Zinnia peruviana

Zinnia species

Zinnia

Zinnia
(sold as Crystal White)

Zinnia
(sold as Dreamland Mix)

Zinnia
(sold as Dreamland scarlet)

Zinnia
(sold as Profusion Apricot)

Zinnia
(sold as Profusion Cherry)

Zinnia
(sold as Profusion Orange)

Zinnia
(sold as Profusion White)

Zinnia
(sold as Short Stuff Mix)

Zinnia
(sold as State Fair Mix)

Anise Swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon), will nectar on Verbena. However, it is not known to come to gardens and parks. If you reside in a rural area inside its range, you may be able to support this species by planting Verbena in your garden. This information is incorrect. Read on.

A similar Swallowtail, Papilio rutulus, will come to gardens and when it does it feeds on Verbena. The two are quite similar - if you saw them flying about overhead it would be quite difficult to tell them apart. Anise Swallowtail is darker overall, having a higher ratio of black to yellow - but the two are comprised of the same two colors overall. The top edge of the upper wing of P. zelicaon is more continuously black and the lower hind wing has a row of several blue dots and an orange one as well.

The above clip was written mid-afternoon on July 23, 2016. Later that same afternoon, while reviewing a recent set of photographs taken in the garden, it became quite clear that this butterfly, the Anise Swallowtail, did in fact visited my garden in Menlo Park, CA on July 22. Yesterday, when I saw the butterfly in the garden, I assumed it was the exact same individual P. rutulus Swallowtail that had visited the garden just the day before, on July 21. Why? Because both had a bite taken out of the left rear hindwing. Let's face it, these swallowtails are difficult to distinguish even close up.

I usually record butterfly activity with a video camera, but find the clarity of video stills a bit compromised. Instead, I took a set of images with a decent SLR camera equipped with an auto-focus zoom lens and took shots in rapid succession. These critters do not sit still much so taking shots in rapid succession gave me a fighting chance to grab one decent, clear, image. If I had not JUST NOW studied the distinction between these two creatures, and done so with enough clarity to describe for you the distinction between them, then it might have taken, oh, forever?, to recognize the folly of the day's assumption. I am happy to report, that on occasion, Anise Swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) will nectar on plants in a suburban garden. On this day, when given a choice between Verbena and Fennel, it chose the Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare.

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There are 108 species of Verbena, or VERVAIN, a member of the Verbenaceae family. A few are in this database. The perennial Verbena rigida attracts birds, bees, hummingbirds, and butterflies and grows from seeds or cuttings. It is hardy in Zones 8-11, flowers in summer, grows to two feet tall, and is drought tolerant. Verbena stricta is a short-lived perennial that grows in Zones 4-7, to over three feet tall, blooms in summer, and tolerates dry conditions. Verbena bonarensis is a favorite to insects. It can grow to over 6 feet tall in Zones 7-10 and blooms from summer into fall.

Plant some Foeniculum vulgare too.

Papilio zelicaon
Papilio zelicaon 3