Come! Ms. Dunlap will give two talks at the CNPS Conservation Conference Feb. 1-3 in LA!

One regarding a database of 3,700 nectar plants (& how to collect images to benefit pollinators), and the other regarding
a prototypical key incorporating a novel plant identification system that produced an order of magnitude improvement.

Lobelia angulata

Family: Campanulaceae

Common name: PANAKENAKE

Synonym: Pratia angulata

Native to: New Zealand


Type: perennial

Forms: clumping, dense form, mounding, prostrate, spreading

Leaves evergreen

Max height: 0.33 feet

Max width: 2 feet


white/off white




Attracts wildlife: adult butterfly, hummingbird, specific butterfly species

Plant part consumed by birds: nectar

Plant features: evergreen, naturalizes, weedy

Exposure: part shade, shade

Landscape uses: container, ground cover


Propagates by: seed

flowers in summer

Soil type: wide range

USDA Zones: zone 7 to 0 f, zone 8 to +10 f, zone 9 to +20 f

Temp. range: 0 to +30 °F

Water: regular

  • Pratia angulata  weg0035
  • Pratia angulata  weg0036
  • Pratia angulata  weg0037
  • Pratia angulata  weg0038 2
  • Pratia angulata  weg0038 3
  • Pratia angulata  weg0038

Of the 436 species of Lobelia, many are cultivated. Lobelia is a member of the Campanulaceae family that flower spring, summer, or fall. They grow in Zones 3-10 to 1-2 feet tall; Lobelia tupa can get to 6 ½ feet in height. They do best with regular watering. Both birds and butterflies come to this plant for nectar.

Lobelia attracts Danaus plexippus, MONARCH, Papilio rutulus, WESTERN TIGER SWALLOWTAIL, and Vanessa cardui, PAINTED LADY.

Lobelia cardinalis attracts Phoebis sennae, CLOUDLESS SULPHUR.

Papilio rutulus
Container plants that attract adult butterflies - perennial

This plant is one of 186 perennials suitable to grow in a container that will attract adult butterflies. 38 of these plants attract birds and 67 attract specific butterfly species. They can be found in every height range – from tiny to large – from less than a foot high to over 10 feet tall. 19 of these plants are drought tolerant, more than 80 are available for dry or moderate watering conditions. 29 are deciduous, while 71 are evergreen. Some can grow in Zone 2, while the others grow in Zones 3-11. 178 perennial plants that attract butterflies and can be grown in containers in Zone 9. 77 can be used as cut flowers. They come in any one of the available flower colors.

We have found that, when given a choice, butterflies and bees frequent named species more often than cultivars. You may want to keep this in mind when you select plants for your garden if your goal is to attract and support these insects.

You are free to use any of the above filters to reduce the plant list further.