Butterflies in Mind -- Zinnia
Susan C. Dunlap
A collection of 50 images as if seen from a butterfly’s point of view. Includes the names of native Zinnia species and the most complete list of US butterflies that will feed on Zinnia blossoms.
Butterflies in Mind -- Asclepias
Susan C. Dunlap
“Milkweed is the single most important plant for Monarch butterflies. This lavishly illustrated book contains details about the structure and cultivation of native Milkweeds, information about the 139 nectar-feeding butterflies they...
Butterflies in Mind -- Monarch
Susan C. Dunlap
This abundantly illustrated volume enables you to select from a complete list of well described perennial nectar plants that are known to attract & feed Monarch butterflies. Over 40 genera are described that are suitable to be grown...
Butterflies in Mind -- Perennials
Susan C. Dunlap
Butterflies in Mind - Perennials. This book is a definitive guide to perennial nectar plants preferred by US butterflies. It empowers you to feed, attract, support (and help identify) nectar-feeding butterflies that reside in the US....

Centranthus ruber

Family: Valerianaceae


Synonym: Centranthus ruber red valerian

Native to: Europe, Northern Africa To Asia Minor


Type: perennial

Forms: clumping, erect, spreading

Leaves deciduous

Leaves evergreen

Max height: 2.75 feet

Max width: 2.75 feet


pink, red




Attracts wildlife: adult butterfly, specific butterfly species

Plant features: deciduous, evergreen, invasive, self-sows

Exposure: sun

Landscape use: flower fragrant


Propagates by: seed

flowers in spring

flowers in summer

Soil types: average, well drained

USDA Zones: zone 5 to -20 f, zone 6 to -10 f, zone 7 to 0 f, zone 8 to +10 f, zone 9 to +20 f, zone 10 to +30 f

Temp. range: -20 to +40 °F

Water: dry, moderate

Centranthus ruber, a Valerianaceae, is also called KEYS OF HEAVEN or RED VALERIAN. It is a naturalizing perennial that grows in meridians, abandoned lots, any small crack in the cement found within its range, and just about any hospitable square-inch of front yard found near these aforementioned locales. Centranthus ruber is cultivated and grows from seed. It grows in Zones 5-10 in moderate to drought watering conditions.

RED VALERIAN will attract numerous butterflies to feed including the diminutive Pyrgus communis, Common checkered skipper.